Wednesday, April 13, 2011


         Today is the last class for BEL260. I feel happy because there is no more class to attend but I feel sad too. This is because maybe we will not meet each other and our lecturer, Miss Zu in the next semester..sob..sob… ;(
          During class today, Nabilah and her group make a presentation about future tense. Future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future, or to happen subsequent to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future.
          After they all finish their presentation, Miss Zu returns back our mid-term test paper and listening test paper. Alhamdulillah, I got a high mark in both test. :D But, Marini and Dalila got all correct for listening test. They score 15/15 marks. For anyone who receive a mark that is below 10, Miss Zu tell them to clean their ears..hehe.. Then, we all discuss the answer for both test.
           After that, our lecturer gives us an exit survey to be filled. She gives us about 10 minutes to complete the survey. At the end of the class, we all take a picture with Miss Zu. That’s all.


          A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.  The preposition is almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a preposition.

  • Preposition of time(before, around, at, during)
    example: She was caught cheating during the exam. 
  • Preposition of place(in, on, at, to)
    example: Umiey has lived in Australia for three years. 
  •  Preposition of position(above, across, against, along)
    example: The boys ran across the road even though there was heavy traffic. 
  •  Preposition of manner(at, with, by)
    example: He is good at learning foreign languages.


                 An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, clause, or sentence. Function of adverb is to add information to a clause or another word. We can recognize the adverbs by see its position which is before or after verbs. There are a few type of adverb such as :

-  Adverb of time
   ( now, soon, later, then )
   Example: Salimah will be shifting to a new place soon.

-  Adverb of place
   ( out, up, there, everywhere)
   Example: He went there to get a better look at the place.

-  Adverb of manner
   ( slowly, quickly, well, hard )
   Example: James quickly ran for shelter when it started to rain.

-  Adverb of degree
   (much, almost, quite, very)
   Example: They were very happy when the singer appeared on stage.


       A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less difficult and less repetitive.
       Types of pronouns:
Ø  Personal pronouns
Ø  Demonstrative pronouns
Ø  Interrogative pronouns
Ø  Indefinite pronouns
Ø  Relative pronouns
Ø  Reflexive pronouns
Ø  Intensive pronouns

       To replace nouns as the subjects of sentenses
       Subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they)
  1. We will meet at the library at 3.00 p.m.
  2. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
  3. After many years, they returned to their homeland.
       To replace nouns as the objects of verbs and prepositions
       Object pronouns(me, you, her, him, it, us, them)
  1. Lisa and Evan will meet us at the newest café in the market.
  2. Give the list to me.
  3. Christopher was surprised to see her at the horse races.
       To replace nouns to show possession and defines who owns a particular object or person
       Possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, its, theirs, ours)
  1. The smallest gift is mine.
  2. Ours is the green one on the corner.
  3. His is on the kitchen counter.

       Demonstrative pronouns points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun.
       This” and “These” refers to things that are nearby either in space or in time.
       That” and “Those” refers to things that are farther away in space or time.
  1. This is nice; that is the tree I want.
  2. I'll take these.

       To replace nouns used to ask questions.
       Interrogative pronouns (who, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever)
  1. Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
  2. Whom do you think we should invite?
  3. What do you think about this situation?
       To replace nouns used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause.
       "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence
       "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
  1. You may invite whomever you like to the party.
  2. The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.
  3. Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.

       Refers to an identifiable but not specified person or thing.
       An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
       The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone."
  1. We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.
  2. Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.
  3. Anyone can do that.
       To replace nouns to replace an object which refers to the subject.
       The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves."
  1. Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.
  2. Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
  3. John cut himself.
       Intensive pronouns used to emphasise its antecedent.
       Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
  1. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
  2. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.
  3. I did it myself.

Sunday, April 3, 2011


        When you are looking at the writer's point of view, you are actually trying to look at the text through the writer's eyes. In other words, you are trying to understand a text through the writer's perception, which is influenced by his or her personal beliefs on an issue.
         The writer's attitude towards an issue is shown through the tone he or she uses in his or her writing. Tone refers to the writer's use of word's and writing styles to demonstrate his or her stand towards the issue in a text.
         Determine the tone used in a text by:
  • Looking at the word choice 
  • Analysing the phrasing used to describe an event
  • Considering how you feel when you read the text
      Examples of tone words : angry, bitter, compassionate, cynical, excited, intense, mocking, optimistic, pessimistic
       Writer's intention :
  • To persuade
  • To inform
  • To entertain
  • To instruct